What is bipolar disorder

Initially, the term "manic-depressive psychosis" refers to all mood disorders.The concept was introduced in the late 19th century and lasted until the sixties of the 20th century, when German scientist, psychiatrist Karl Leonhard created his nosological classification of psychotic disorders.Leonhard coined the term "bipolar disorder" and contrasted its "unipolar disorder."Simply put, he separated the patients who are in major depressive disorder from those who have episodes of depression alternate with periods of mania.Psychosis, is there one of the names of the disease - one of the most serious stage. In the world of bipolar disorder affects about 4% of the population.

According to the severity of the disease is divided into bipolar disorder type I and II t on cyclotomic disorder.Bipolar I disorder most dangerous periods of depression can interfere with social and personal life, and manic episodes to be dangerous both for the patient and for others.Bipolar disorder type II less dangerous, but the depressive phase it longer, but the manic episodes are usually held in the form of hypomania, a less severe disorder.Cyclotomic disorder - the "soft" form of the disease. often bipolar disorder allocate those that are seasonal and disorder with rapid cycling, cyclic alternating episodes.

hypomanic episodes and manikalnye

Hypomania - one of the "easy" phase of bipolar disorder.During her patients may be slightly more excitable, but active, energetic and maybe even more successful.Hypomania, and mania are characterized by both increased confidence and, to varying degrees, high self-esteem.

Going from goipomanii in mania, the patient begins to feel not just a smart and successful, but "bulletproof" infallible, full of brilliant ideas and energy for their implementation.A patient in a manic episode "choking" in the abundance of his own thoughts, his speech becomes chaotic and spontaneous language is not keeping pace with the nascent tortured sanity in words.Patients difficult to kill, sometimes they start talking in rhyme and not just desperate gesture, but also to dance, still broadcasting.The characteristic symptom of a manic episode is insomnia.Patients think they have so much energy that 2-3 hours of sleep a day is enough to recuperate.

Other symptoms of the manic phase are:
- an increase in sexual desire;
- uninhibited and risky behavior;
- irritability;
- unwise investments, spending sprees and risky;
- craving for alcohol and drugs.

patient was difficult to concentrate, his thoughts jump from one thing to another.It was in the manic phase, a person may become aggressive and prone to psychosis, up to delusional disorder and hallucigenia.Manic episodes are dangerous not only for patients but also for others.

depressive episodes

During the depressive phase of the patient may spend days not get out of bed, on the grounds that he had no reason to go somewhere, and this is not to force.Activity manic episode is replaced by apathy, confidence in their own exceptionalism - the belief in nothingness and futility of their existence.

symptoms of a depressive episode are:
- an abnormal decrease or increase in appetite;
- loss of sexual desire;
- indecision;
- increased anxiety;
- heightened sense of guilt;
- loss of concentration.
depressive phase may also be accompanied by psychotic and, in an acute form, delusions and hallucinations.The depressive episode the patient, most often a danger to himself, because it is often suicidal thoughts.that it can implement.

mixed affective episodes

Mixed episodes - the most dangerous in bipolar disorder.During the same time showing them the patient symptoms and depression and mania.It can burst into tears during his "brilliant" inspirational speech or no reason to jump out of bed and indulge in a flurry of activity, the patient can simultaneously build grandiose plans and feel like a failure.Panic attacks end with aggression.

in any phase of the disorder the patient requires the assistance of qualified doctors.